use phonemes in a sentence.
Is the problem in guessing phonemes or guessing which word is being said based on the phonemes?
This is probably a question of phonemes; Swedish has most of other language's strange sounds.
The effect is very well established in hearing, where we learn to hear phonemes of our language and lose our ability to recognize phonemes not in our native language.
BASIC has a lot of different statement types (phonemes).
Since it is phonetic, it will differ from country to country since different languages map differently to phonemes.
Random google search for "phoneme compression" turns up this patent: It sounds to me like you build a library of common sounds that voices make (these are the phonemes), and then you use just combinations of these phonemes at specific times and volumes to get as close to the target waveform as possible.
I agree that its at the heart of it (and I'm presently writing a paper where I'm using articulatory-phonetic features rather than phonemes).
Did you know they used Goog-411 to collect spoken phonemes to improve their auto-captioning of YouTube videos (so they can search them)?